updated: 13.06.2019 (06-13-19)
please use these tools with caution, data loss can happen.
use help ( /?, /help, -?, -help, get-command) if necessary.






( | out-gridview is optional )


command description
get-command * | out-gridview list all powershell commands / aliases / help
get-process | out-gridview shows all processes
stop-process -name [appname] stop application / process by name
stop-process -id [appid] stop application / process by id
calc start calculator
cd c:\users\[username]\desktop change current directory to users desktop
dir -name list current directory files and forlders
chkdsk c: checks disk drive c for errors !use with caution - read help before start!
get-wmiobject win32_process | sort-object -property ws -descending | select-object processid,name,ws | out-gridview list running processes
get-service | out-gridview shows all services
powershell_ise start ps_ise utility - use it to learn powershell
taskmgr start task-manager gui
whoami shows hostname and current username
winver shows build details about windows
get-childitem -path *.txt -recurse list all txt-files (textfiles) from current directory and all subfolders
firewall open windows firewall gui
get-date shows date and time
get-disk | out-gridview shows available disks
get-netadapter | out-gridview shows available net interfaces
get-netipinterface | out-gridview shows connections
get-ciminstance win32_computersystem show information about host system
get-volume list all disk volumes
systeminfo host system information / check hyper-v requirements






( use windows search / run / powershell to input and start .msc applications )


msc file console description
azman.msc authorization manager manage authorization stores
certlm.msc certificates local computer loads the list of certificates of the local computer
certmgr.msc certificates loads the list of certificates of the user
comexp.msc component services loads component services, event viewer, and services
compmgmt.msc computer management includes system tools ( task scheduler, event viewer, shared folders, local users and groups, performance and device manager ), storage ( disk management ), and services and applications ( services and wmi control )
devmgmt.msc device manager opens the device manager to manage hardware and devices
diskmgmt.msc disk management opens disk management to administrate connected storage devices
eventvwr.msc event viewer opens the event viewer which displays operating system, software, and hardware events
fsmgmt.msc shared folders loads the list of shared folders, sessions, and open files
gpedit.msc group policy editor loads the group policy editor to manage system policies
lusrmgr.msc local users and groups interface to manage local users and user groups
perfmon.msc performance monitor loads the windows performance monitor
printmanagement.msc print management manage printers
secpol.msc local security policy loads policies such as account policies, public key policies, or advanced audit policy configuration
services.msc services manager loads the list of installed services to manage them
taskschd.msc task scheduler loads the task scheduler to manage tasks
wf.msc windows firewall starts windows firewall with advanced security
wmimgmt.msc wmi management configure and control the windows management instrumentation service








msc file console
adsiedit.msc adsi edit
cluadmin.msc failover cluster manager
dhcpmgmt.msc dhcp management
dnsmgmt.msc dns manager
domain.msc active directory domains and trust
dsa.msc active directory users and computers
dssite.msc active directory sites and services
fsrm.msc file server resource manager
gpmc.msc group policy management
gpme.msc group policy mangement editor
gptedit.msc group policy starter gpo editor
lsdiag.msc rd licensing diagnoser
nps.msc network policy server
rrasmgmt.msc routing and remote access
servermanager server manager
tapimgmt.msc telephony
tsgateway.msc rd gateway manager
wbadmin.msc windows server backup
winsmgmt.msc wins








type description
ping test network host communication
netstat test network communication
arp map ip adresses to mac addresses
nbtstat diagnose domain
hostname display hostname
tracert test network hosts communication
ipconfig /all display host and network information
nslookup diagnose dns
route view routing tables
pathping test and ping hosts








type description
diskpart manage hard-drives
pnputil manage drivers
icacls manage permissions
bcdedit boot configuration data editor
slmgr -rearm renew windows lisence
driverquery view installed drivers
gpupdate /force update policies
control open control panel








type description
select disk 0 select primary disk
list disk shows disks
list partition shows partitions of active disk
list volume shows details about disks
detail disk shows details about selected disk









press action
WIN + D show / hide desktop
WIN + E show file explorer
WIN + I show settings
WIN + R show run
WIN + S show search
WIN + T switch applications
WIN + X show command menu
WIN + Pause show system
WIN + TAB show / switch open applications
WIN + Arrows change app layout
CTRL + SHIFT + ESC task manager
ALT + F4 close window






SUBNETTING (example in yellow):


number of subnets:
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256
number of hosts per subnet: 256 128 64 32
16 8 4 2 1
subnet mask: /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 /31 /32



example of original network ID: /24 ,with 4 subnets:
network ID: subnet mask: host ID range: number of usable hosts: broadcast ID: /26 - 62 /26 - 62 /26 - 62 /26 - 62
subnet mask:
wildcard mask:
binary subnet mask: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000
IP / network class type: C
CIDR notation: /26


Subnet masks:
CIDR subnet mask: subnet mask: binary subnet mask:
/24 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
/25 11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000
/26 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000
/27 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
/28 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
/29 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111000
/30 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100
/31 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111110
/32 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111



page by: @koomalabra